The Top 4 Challenges HR Professionals Are Facing in Emerging Markets


Much has been written about the rise of emerging markets and what they can offer in terms of talent pool. But not one emerging market is the same and one HR strategy may not fill all markets. In a changing environment, the HR strategies used to manage people in one country are sometimes ineffective in another and what worked in a country might not in another.

That is the reality many companies are currently facing in emerging markets because of a lack of preparation, anticipation and adequate talent strategies.

Generally speaking, there is no right or wrong HR management strategy. However, as an HR professional, you should be mindful of cultural differences and varying HR issues arising in the targeted country before trying to implement anything. Needless to say that developing an inadequate talent strategy in a BRICs country can be one of a most expensive mistakes for a company? Not only in terms of money, but also in terms of real and potential talent losses.

In order to avoid such error, you need to know what are the hottest HR issues, topics and trends in emerging markets that could be an obstacle to your company's development? To help you in this task, below is a list of 4 critical HR challenges arising from some BRICs countries? Memorize them? You will gain time and efficiency?

HR challenge # 1: Attracting and retaining talented workers

BRAZIL – One of Brazil's biggest problems is a shortage of qualified labor. Companies operating in Brazil are demanding more skilled workers than the labor market currently offers? The shortage is especially pronounced for companies in need of technicians, engineers and English speaking managers. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to retain talented workers with 5-10 years experience because they tend to switch companies in order to advance their careers and get higher pay.

RUSSIA – Russia has a considerable intellectual capital composed of engineers, scientists and many other well-qualified people. Nevertheless, many companies reported that it is more and more difficult to find great people as the quality of staff as well as the level of education are continually decreasing. In fact, job candidates from Russia are well educated but often by universities that fail to give them practical skills? Besides, an increasing number of talented Russians have left the country to go to Israel and the USA. As a result, only 20% of Russian professionals are currently considered employable by companies.

INDIA – In spite of the huge talent pool available in India, companies have trouble recruiting qualified workers because the quality of talent is not as good as it could be. By looking closer at the workforce available, it is estimated that only 25% of Indian professionals possess the skills required by companies. Regarding to the skilled candidates, they are highly attractive, mobile and willing to switch industries in order to play different roles and increase their salary. As a consequence, HR teams waste a lot of money as well as time because of this flow of people entering and exiting companies? What is more, foreign companies operating in India have to compete not only with Indian companies but also with companies from Korea, Japan and Hong Kong who are poaching the best Indian talent. As the population of these three countries is becoming old very fast, many of companies from there are turning their attention to Indian workforce.

CHINA – Despite China's population of more than 1.3 billion, companies are struggling to find and retain employees. Even though, million of university graduates enter China's job market each year, only a small number of them are capable of working in a multinational environment. Reasons include lack of strong English language skills and none previous work experience. Moreover, only one-quarter of these graduated candidates live in a city or region where companies are located. As labor mobility is restricted by the government, few young talents are currently living in urban areas? Foreign companies operating in China face an additional problem that explains talent shortage: more and more graduates and senior executives are willing to work for national Chinese companies rather than foreign companies.

SOUTH AFRICA – It is estimated than 10% of companies operating in South Africa have had difficulties filling job positions in 2011. In comparison to other BRICs countries, this number is low. However, there is a real shortage of talented people particularly engineers, legal workers, technicians, teachers and finance & accounting workers. The main reason is that the South African people who do have or acquire these skills tend to migrate to other countries who will offer them better job opportunities. This brain-drain has a high impact on companies' businesses and needs to be addressed now if the country does not want to face a bigger talent gap in the future.

HR challenge # 2: Developing effective leaders

CHINA – Developing leaders is a tough task in any market, but in China HR teams have the difficulty to adapt their talent management strategies to the country's unique business culture and values. Besides, Chinese potential candidates for leadership positions often lack international experience, innovation and an ability to assimilate into a Western company culture.

Due to their cultural background, they are not accustomed to taking risks and managing change. As a result, about one-quarter of Chinese leaders are weak in the skills most critical for success in their roles and more than one-half are inadequately prepared for their roles? There is another issue to take into consideration: working for a Chinese company seems to become the preferred career choice for Chinese executives as well as expatriates steeped in the market.

SOUTH AFRICA – It's extremely difficult to fill senior and executive management positions with top quality leader. Many of the current leaders working in leading companies are close to retirement and there is a lack of suitable 40/50-year-old candidates with a strong managerial background to replace them. To overcome this critical situation, numerous companies promote young talent to positions of leadership and offer fast-tracking careers to keep the best of them. As these new young leaders do not have enough work experience and are not prepared to handle such responsibilities, the majority of them fails or underperforms. It is vital for the success of companies operating in South Africa to invest in leadership programs in order to develop a real talented generation of leaders.

HR challenge # 3: Dealing with difficult Employment laws

BRAZIL – Brazilian labor code makes it hard to use expatriates in order to fill the shortage gap. The Ministery of Labor seeks to protect as much as possible the domestic labor market by limiting the hiring of foreign workers. As a result, trying to get work permits for foreign employees is a very difficult task for any HR team. When it is possible, the maximum duration granted for a temporary work permit is 1 to 2 years but the reality is that many foreign workers can only stay 90 days within the country? With regard to national Brazilian workers, the labor code is very pro-employee and provides extensive protection to the employee at the expense of the employer. Recently, President Dilma Rousseff approved a law ordering companies to pay overtime rates for after-hours work calls or emails. This regulation reflects an existing trend in Brazil's courts: employees suing their bosses over out-of-office work.

RUSSIA – Russian labor code is extremely employee friendly and it is almost impossible to terminate an employee. However, it allows any employee – regardless of seniority or nationality – quit a job after only 2 weeks' notice and go to work for a competitor immediately. Moreover, Russian labor laws apply to all nationalities, meaning foreign employees (including expatriates) have the same rights than Russian employees. This is a standard practice in some EU countries required by EU labour law.

HR challenge # 4: Managing the career expectations of Gen Y

INDIA – The Gen Y is writing the new code in Indian workforce. Mature enough to play crucial roles in companies, they can, however, be a nightmare for HR teams as they are more inclined to leave companies than any previous generation. Apart from the attraction and retention of Indian Gen Y, the biggest challenges today are communicating with them and offering them a rapid career evolution. In fact, the typical Gen Y Indian worker wants success to come to him / her fast and money faster.

As most of India's high-potential workers (around 64%) and middle managers (around 55%) are Gen Y, the future of India – as well as companies operating there – rests on its ability to engage this generation.

CHINA – Chinese Gen Y makes up about 50% of the current China's workforce. Raised to succeed, they are more educated, talented and ambitious than the previous generations. As a result, their demands, values ​​and behaviour at work are different from those of their parents. For example, their expectations for rapid advancement and career mobility are high and they place great emphasis on salary. If your company can not offer them an exciting career path, they will move to another company in order to have a better career opportunity and increase their remuneration as well. Being promoted is the greatest motivational factor in their career. Unfortunately, it is not always possible. So it is imperative that HR teams find new ways to motivate them.

Of course, as a global HR professional, you will never be asked to resolve ALL these issues alone! However, your company deeply relies on your HR team to anticipate any people risks that can affect its development? By having a clear vision of the issues facing by other HR teams in emerging markets, you will not only improve your global HR knowledge but also be aware of the HR differences and similarities between these different countries in terms of HR challenges. As a result, you will be able to suggest better ideas and solutions to your HR team. Developing a global mindset will also help you become an integral part of the leadership team searching ways to reduce people risks in emerging markets.

Remember what Ulrich says "Modern HR must take on many roles to demonstrate competence and effectiveness". And I am quite sure that – like any HR professional – your goal is to be better at what you do and demonstrate people that you can be a strategic business partner.


Source by Elisee Okonda Loma

Seducing Your Dance Teacher



Many men can develop a romantic (or at least sexual) interest in their dance teacher. They then of course have thoughts about seducing her. This is not uncommon or unsurprising. If you spend that much time with a woman and get that close to her, then you will of course start to think about her in this way. Chances are your dance teacher is very attractive too. Most dance instructors are attractive: both physically and personality wise. Dance is a good form of exercise (especially if you do it as a job) so your dance teacher likely has a very good body. Most people interested in dance also have a very good sense of presentation and style, so she probably also does her makeup well and dresses well. This would simply add more to how attractive she is. But what might be even more attractive is her personality. Because dance exudes a lot of sexuality and is very traditional with regards to gender roles your dance teacher will likely have a very engaging and attractive personality. Put all of this together and it is small wonder that you are attracted to her. She is also going to be nice to you, because you are a customer, and this will make you feel that you have a chance. This combination of high attraction and a feeling of potential will make you give serious thought to the possibility of seducing your dance teacher.

Understanding the situation

So you are now at a place where you want to know how to seduce your dance teacher. Before I talk about this some more I want to review the situation. You probably already sense that this is different from other situations where you have wanted to pick up a woman. This is probably why you've ended up reading this article. So what issues are there unique to picking up your dance teacher?

You're not the only student she has. In your mind your dance teacher is a unique person. You see her once or twice a week. You are one of many students she sees in a week. Just think about how many other students she could see in a week. You will then realise that you probably do not 'pop' in her head as much as she does yours. So do not make the assumption that the feelings are likely to be mutual.

You are not likely to be the first student try to pick her up. This carries over from the previous point. Your teacher is probably sensitive to this and can tell if you're interested. She will therefore likely know before you say anything to her. This means she has possibly already prepared to counter your advances; this is the safe option for her. This will make such a seduction more challenging than others.

There will be implications if you try and fail. I know two dance teachers who have had to ask their students to move to a different teacher after the advances were rejected. However, in both cases it was not the first time that the student tried. Both women had enough experience to be able to continue on. But just think about what might happen if you do try. You need to be prepared for this.

Are there not other women at your dance school? You possibly get a bit too captivated by your teacher to realise that there are other women at your dance school. You are probably more likely to meet with success if you consider other women in the dance school. What's more, your dance teacher is probably an excellent source if information and advice. You need no wing man when you have a dance teacher who can use the dance teacher network to find out about any other woman in the class. You have probably realised that teachers talk about the students to each other. Not only that, but they typically like it when students get together. That means you can expect some good advice about other female dance students from your teacher.

So there are a number of things to consider before you try to seduce your dance teacher. If after thinking about these things you still want to try picking her up, then there are some things you need to remember.

If you are still sure you want to pick your dance teacher up

She is still a woman so the basics of what she finds attractive are the same for her as they are for any other woman. If you feel that you're not well skilled at picking up women in general, then that is something that you can learn more about. It is not what I am talking about in this article so I will not go into anymore detail here apart from suggesting that you consider looking at other articles on this website.

There are however some issues unique to the situation that you are in. Because you are a student you are in a weaker position. Typically, women prefer a stronger man. This is probably more so for dance teachers. Like I said above, dance is traditional with regards to the relationship between the sexes. Thus a dance teacher is likely to want a more traditional (and strong) man. Therefore, you need to make sure you come across as a strong man. So do not view your teacher as a person you need to impress. View her as a person who is helping you become a better dancer. When you ensure that it is about you and she is part of your plan, then you will have the dominant position.

This means you might need to change the way you approach dance.

Take action outside of class to improve your dance. Read books on dance, go to other dance events and classes and take action to improve attributes of dance. Maybe you will work on your musicality, or fitness. If you think that the way she is teaching is not ideal for you, then talk to her about it. Do not be unreasonable, she has been teaching for a while, but raise issues so that you do not seem passive and weak. Basically, you are managing your progression in dance and she is there to help you do that.

Women who want to seduce their dance teacher

This article has focused on men. However, women will sometimes want the same thing. The difference here is that the male dance instructor is probably more open to a sexual encounter with a student. I know women who have had sex with their instructor. However, I also know some male teachers dance who have been stalked by their dance students. If you're trying to form a relationship with a male dance teacher, then realise that he is likely having sex with a couple of his students. And you will need to make him think he would want to leave that for you.

One big do not

Do not think gifts will work. Gifts make it look like you're trying to buy attraction. And attraction just does not work like that. You're not likely to be the only person buying your teacher presents anyway.

Final bit of help

This video Might give you some more insights.


Source by Clint Steele

Management by Drive-By-Shooting


Remember "Management by Objectives"? Those of you born after 1970 might not be familiar with it. Here is the Wikipedia definition: Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are. "

Peter Drucker first introduced it in 1954. It was very popular in the 1980's, and then it seemed to step aside in the 1990's to allow other new management techniques-of-the-month to take their place in the management de regueur.

MBO made way for clear communication between managers and their employees regarding goals and, more importantly, allowed and expected discussions, agreements, and disagreements to take place between the an employee and his or her manager in order to arrive at clearly defined goals and objectives each year. The emphasis, of course, was on the discussions, agreements, and disagreements, since anyone can list a set of goals and give them to an employee, hoping to be done with it right then & there.

I was recently introduced to a new form of leadership, Management by Drive-By-Shooting. Someone told me stories of working alongside (but not for) a manager who makes decisions and manages her work in "drive by shooting" fashion. Funny, eh?

We can call it MBDBS (or just "Drive By"). This leadership style gives assignments to people without enough background information and with little lead time. Decisions are made without verifying all of the facts, without consulting with all of the required parties, and / or by sending people on wild goose chases.

Managers who lead with MBDBS can be very nice people. They can be fun to talk to. They usually have a lot of energy (sometimes nervous energy, but energy nonetheless).

By now, many of you are thinking of people you know or have worked with in the past who manage by Drive-Bys. You might have a memory of this manager stopping by your office or cubicle, asking you to work on something in particular, and leaving before you had the chance to ask the most pertinent questions. (This could have also come in the form of a voicemail or e-mail.)

So how do you manage a manager who manages by Drive Bys?

First, say that 5 times fast.

Second, develop a way to slow that manager down.

Third, take advantage of that "slow down" time to figure out the right questions to ask him or her regarding the areas that they usually skip:

  • Ask about more of the facts
  • Ask about who has already been consulted on the issue
  • Ask about what other groups or individuals might be interested in the process or the outcome
  • Ask about the real timeline.

Fourth, request another meeting time with him or her (at least 30 minutes) and get it on their calendar. Schedule this for no sooner than two business days out. Take those two days to make some calls to other folks to gather more facts.

  • Will this manager's plan tick someone off?
  • Does anyone else have some facts that change the entire scope?
  • Will this plan really increase net profit, or will it actually cost more money in the long run?
  • Are there any legal hurdles that need to be cleared in order to proceed?

Having a plan in place to manage this type of manager is always better than being a victim of a Drive-By!


Source by Glory Borgeson

Management – 8 Key Competencies of Successful Managers


Management is a diverse role with a range of responsibilities and challenges that need to be addressed. Competency as a manager is an important part of achieving. So what 8 key competencies do successful managers have?

Competency 1: Results Focus

Successful managers know that at the end of the day it is not what you do but what you deliver that matters. Having a results focus is about knowing what outcomes are required and focusing yourself and those that you manage on delivering the results. This results focus keeps you on track and reduces the scope for distractions.

Competency 2: Making Change

Leaders regularly set out requirements for change. It might be in terms of process, people, service, ways of doing things to name just a few. While leaders will set out the overall direction, managers are the people who need to make the change happen on the ground. This requires them to overcome the obstacles that without doubt will appear as they try to make change.

Competency 3: Planning

Managers do not have the luxury of just having one thing to do. They have to manage money, people, processes, projects, customer relationships and themselves. This requires them to be able to plan effectively so that they get the best results possible.

Competency 4: Team Development

Managers can not do everything on their own. They need a team around them that can help them to deliver results. Successful managers recognise that team development is an ongoing activity. People come and go from teams and the dynamics that this creates need to be managed. Many team members want to progress and so creating opportunities for growth and development is important.

Competency 5: Risk Management

All areas of business face threats and managers need to become competent at identifying and responding to risk. These risks can range from losing key staff to health and safety issues. Successful managers recognise the importance of identifying and proactively responding to risk.

Competency 6: Decision Making

Until a decision is taken, nothing happens. Managers who procrastinate are a source of frustration to staff. The staff might not always like or agree with the decision that you have made but they will prefer you to take a decision rather than procrastinate.

Competency 7: Communication

Successful managers are effective communicators in 3 areas. They are effective speakers and can put their points forward clearly. They are also effective at getting their message across in writhing whether it is an e-mail or report. Finally, they are effective listeners.

Competency 8: Customer Service Focus

Successful managers recognise that they have customers, even if they are not working directly with the end consumer or user of the product or service. Successful IT Managers see the users of the systems as customers. Accounts Department Managers see budget holders, employees whose salaries they process and suppliers they pay as customers.

Successful management requires you to have a range of competencies. So where are you highly successful and where do you need to develop to be an even more successful manager?


Source by Duncan Brodie

Leadership Model For A 21st Century Health Care Organization


There is a growing trend for leaders to break the old autocratic model of leadership to newer models using the concepts of shared and participatory leadership. With the every increasing complexity of health care delivery and the new skilled work force, leaders will have to communicate in an atmosphere where a reaching organization objective is a shared responsibility. According to Bennis, Spreitzer and Cummings (2001) in the future the landscape of health care organization will become more decentralized, which will promote agility, proactivity, and autonomy. Future leaders may move away from singular roles to shared leadership networks that may themselves alter the foundations of the organization. The demands for shared leadership or leaders shifting roles on teams will continue to increase. Health care organization will foster the development and empowerment of people, building teamwork and shared leadership on all levels. The leaders of the future will be guides, asking for input and sharing information. Telling people what to do and how to do it will become a thing of the past (Bennis, Spreitzer and Cummings, 2001). In the 21st century the dynamics of health care will offer leaders who have the ability to motivate and empower others a platform to maximize an organization human resources. Leadership will have to be committed to encourage a two way communication in which the vision meets both the organizations objectives and the employee's needs. This assignment will develop a leadership model for the 21st century that addresses the role of commitment model of shared and participatory leadership in health care organizations.

Commitment model of leadership

Fullam, Lando, Johansen, Reyes, and Szaloczy (1998) suggest effective leadership style is an integral part of creating an environment that nurtures the development of an empowered group. Leader effectiveness is simply the extent to which the leader's group is successful in achieving organizational goals (Fullam et al., 1998). In the 21st century health care organizations will need leaders that are committed to developing employees in a team environment. In an environment where leadership is transferable according to objective commitment leadership has a shared purpose. Kerfoot and Wantz (2003) suggested in inspired organizations where people are committed and excited about their work, compliance to standards and the continual search for excellence happens automatically. In these organizations, compliance continues when the leader is not present. This type of leadership requires the team leader to use all available means to create three conditions among individuals: (a) shared purpose, (b) self-direction, and (c) quality work. Leaders who create commitment among their employees believe in creating a shared vision that generates a sense of shared destiny for everyone (Kerfoot & Wantz, 2003).

Involving others in leadership is a unique process which is deeply rooted in individuals believing they are a part of the process of meeting organizational objective and purpose. Atchison and Bujak (2001) suggest involving others in the process is important because people tend to support that which they help to create. People resent being changed, but they will change if they understand and desire the change and control the process. Sharing information promotes a sense of participation and allows people to feel acknowledged and respected (Atchison & Bujak, 2001 p. 141).

Toseland, Palmer-Ganeles, and Chapman (1986) suggest when individual leaders cooperate and share their expertise and skills, a more comprehensive decision making process can be achieved rather than when leaders work independently. For example, in a geriatric team, a psychiatric nurse may lead a group focused on heath concerns, a social worker may lead a therapy group, or a mental-health therapy aide may lead a structured reality-orientation group (Toseland et al., 1986). Shared commitment form the leadership in the future will help to develop, coordinate, and integrate the complex and ever changing health care setting for the 21st century.

Respect for authority and work ethic

Haase-Herrick (2005) suggested shared leadership gives the opportunity to enhance or build trust among individuals. Leadership is mobilized around refining the roles of individuals creating positive health practice environments that support the work of the group (Haase-Herrick, 2005). Leadership ability to lead a team in ways that build morale and reinforce work ethics empowers others to perform to their potential in a group. Leadership is the ability to lead individuals towards achieving a common goal. Leadership builds teams and gains the members shared commitment to the team process by creating shared emotion within the group (Pescosolido, 2002).

Collaboration among leaders in health care

There are new models that are emerging which add a new perspective on how to produce effective collaboration within leadership. Wieland et al., (1996) discussed transdisciplinary teams in health care settings, where members have developed sufficient trust and mutual confidence to engage in teaching and learning across all levels of leadership. The collaborating is shared but the ultimate responsibility for effectiveness is provided in their place by other team members. The shared responsibility for example might be a situation where clinicians on a team each serve in a leadership role regardless of their particular disciplinary expertise (Wieland et al., 1996). The shared commitment model of leadership allows for the independence and equality of the contributing professions while pressuring team members to achieve consensus about group goals and priorities. It is important to emphasize the importance of collaboration in a complex and changing health care environment. The focus on the primary purpose for partnership of leaders will ultimately rest on the shared belief in meeting organizational goals though a collaborative effort. Atchison and Bujak (2001) suggest it is important to reemphasize the importance of keeping everyone informed on the primary purpose of achieving success though a collaborative effort. Clarifying expectations and specifically illustrating how proposed changes are likely to affect the participants is important in achieving commitment leadership (Atchison & Bujak, 2001)

Leadership competency on all levels

The ability to lead in the 21st century requires leaders to be competent in motivating and empowering others to perform to their maximum potential. According to Elsevier (2004) leadership is the ability to lead a team or number of individuals in ways which build morale, generate ownership and harness energies and talents towards achieving a common goal. The leadership competency is all about motivating and empowering others while accomplishing organizational objectives. Leadership is the vehicle in which the vision is clarified though the encouragement of two-way communication on all levels of the organization (Elsevier, 2004).

Leaders in the 21st century will have to be competent in identifying change as they occur and encourage others to adjust to those changes for the mutual benefit of achieving objectives. Elsevier (2004) suggest leaders will have to be comfortable with change because which change comes new opportunities for collaboration among followers and peers (Elsevier, 2004). Improving the results of change initiatives while making sure those changes are fully understood will be a priority for leaders who choice to lead by commitment leadership.

Leadership as a changing agent

Longest, Rakich and Darr (2000) suggest organizational change in health care organization does not occur absent certain conditions. Key are the people who are catalysts for change and who can manage the organizational change process. Such people are called change agents. Anyone can be a change agent, although this role usually is played by leadership. Change agents must recognize that any organizational change involves changing individuals. Individuals will not change with out motivation introduces by the changing agent. The changing agent must create a body of shared values ​​and attitudes, a new consensus in which key individuals with in an organization reinforce one another in selling the new way and in defending it against opposition (Longest, Rakich and Darr, 2000). As health care organizations change in the 21st century successful leaders must have the skills that are necessary to make change possible with in teams of individuals. Longest, Rakich and Darr (2000) suggest one of the important category of change is team building or team development, which "remove barriers to group effectiveness, develop self sufficiency in managing group process, and facilitate the change process (Longest, Rakich and Darr , 2000). A leader who leads by commitment must seek to minimize the resistances to change by building a consensus of objectives with in the organizations culture.


Leadership in the complex health care environment in the 21st century will need individuals to be committed to the promotion of team effectiveness. Sarner (2006) suggest leadership is a "power- and value-laden relationship between leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes and goals." In plainer language, leadership is the dynamic that galvanizes individuals into groups to make things different or to make things better – for themselves, for their enterprise, for the world around them. The essential components of leadership have remained more or less constant: intelligence, insight, instinct, vision, communication, discipline, courage, constancy (Sarner, 2006). In the 21st century leaders must know how to gather, sort, and structure information, and then connect it in new ways to create clear objectives that satisfy both the organization and individuals needs. The important skill that can be learning during this process of leadership is the ability to listen to colleagues and collaborators for the sole purpose of foster a shared consensus. In order to communicate a vision in the future a commitment leader must work with others and sometimes defer some part of the leadership process to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.


Atchison, TA & Bujak, JS (2001). Leading transformational change: The physician-executive partnership. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.

Elsevier, R. (2004). Leadership and change orientation. Competency & Intelligence 12 (2), 16-17. October 8 Retrieved, 2006 from Http://

Haase-Herrick, K. (2005). The opportunities of stewardship: Leadership for the future. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 29 (2), 115-118. Retrieved March 23, 2006, from Ovid Technologies, Inc. Email Service.

Kerfoot, K., & Wantz, S. (2003). Compliance leadership: The 17th century model that does not work. Nursing Dermatology, 15 (4), 377. Retrieved June 3, 2005, from Http://

Longest, B., Rakich, JS & Darr, K. (2000). Managing health services organizations and systems (4th ed.) Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press, Inc.

Pescosolido, AT (2002). Emergent leaders as managers of group emotion. The Leadership Quarterly 185 (2002), xxx-xxx. October 5 Retrieved, 2006 from Http://

Sarner, M. (2006). Can leadership be learned? Retrieved October 8, 2006
from Http://

Toseland, RW, Palmer-Ganeles, J., & Chapman. D. (1986). Teamwork in psychiatric settings. National Association of Social Workers, Inc. Retrieved May 29, 2005, from []

Wieland, D., Kramer, J, Waite, MS, Rubenstein, LZ, & Laurence, Z. (1996). The interdisciplinary team in geriatric care. The American Behavioral Scientist. Retrieved May 1, 2005, from []


Source by Dr.

Is a Commercial Cleaning Franchise Right For You?


Often new entrepreneurs who are looking to start a commercial cleaning business wonder whether buying a cleaning franchise is the right choice for them. There are arguments from both sides on whether joining franchise is the right thing to do or not so much.

Becoming part of a franchise within the cleaning industry definitely has a greater success rate than conventional independent commercial cleaning businesses.Teaming up with a well establish franchise brand awareness, technical support, training, different networks and a partnership. Most importantly though, your return on investment is much faster.

Realistically there are key advantages of buying a commercial cleaning franchise and much like with anything else in life, there is a downside with several disadvantages too.

One should consider a commercial cleaning franchise business only after asking them selves some questions.

Would you be a good manager?

Purchasing a commercial cleaning franchise is essentially managing a pre-developed company. You'd need to hire employees who'd fall in line with your thinking and buy into the concept of the franchisor has already set in place.

How good of a follower are you?

Franchising is all about following an existing set of rules and procedures which are defined by your franchisor. If you are a highly creative person, and enjoy being creative, innovative and open-minded, a franchise environment will only suffocate you as there will be no room for your creativity and ideas. A commercial cleaning franchise is built on the idea that the consumer will the exact same experience no matter which location they deal with.

Do you enjoy hard work?

Even though your partner (commercial cleaning franchise) will give you all the tools to get started, you're still on the hook to bring in new clientele and build numbers.

The above questions should be taken seriously, and if your answer is "No" to any of the above questions, maybe a commercial cleaning franchise is not right for you. And for those of you who answered "Yes" to all three of the above questions, here are a few truly good reasons to join a franchise.

Proven System

You're joining a proven system. Most franchise systems are established and tested for operating the business and making profits. Therefore, the probability for success is much higher due to the established support system.

Greater Support

Knowing that you're not alone in your business can be a good sigh of relief. Buying a commercial cleaning franchise offers you the benefit of not having to start from a scratch. You'll have the opportunity to take advantage of the available resources and established systems.

Larger Network

By becoming part of a franchise, you're essentially becoming part of a large network. Your buying power becomes much stronger. Rather than purchasing supplies locally, you can typically buy in volume and at greater discounts that have already been pre-negotiated by your franchisor.

Training & Support

Franchisors provide training programs at new franchise outlets. They are also involved in the promotion of the new outlets. The experience of the franchisor greatly benefits the franchisee by helping them evade common mistakes.


Source by Eddie Kadic

When Self-Confidence Turns Into a Liability


Self-confidence is defined by Northouse (2010) as one's ability to be convinced about his or her competencies and skills, including a sense of self-esteem and self-assurance. Everybody would agree that self-confidence is an important trait for anyone in a leadership position. The trick is to have the right amount of self-confidence. Depending on the leader and the situation, self-confidence can range from very low to very high. A leader who is at either side of the spectrum is a liability for their organizations.

When a leader is at the low end of the spectrum, their self-confidence can come from either low self-esteem or lack of experience at the job. If it comes from a lack of experience, the leader needs only to acknowledge this and accept wise counsel from the right people. However, when low self-confidence comes from low self-esteem, the leader is in dangerous water. Low self-esteem will cause a leader to demonstrate either a lack of confidence or overconfidence. In either case, the leader becomes a liability.

Leaders with low self-esteem:

  • Unable to make the right decisions for the organization.
  • Preoccupied with being "found out" by others. They feel threatened by anyone who seems to know more than them, therefore, failing to be open to others ideas and recommendations.
  • Indecisive, causing delays throughout the organization. They either take too much time to make a decision or too frequently change their mind.
  • Unable to take ownership of mistakes.
  • Try to please everyone.
  • Not focused on their strengths and how they can contribute to the organization, resulting in personal ineffectiveness.

In one example, a leader without much confidence in his capabilities was constantly worried about being outperformed by subordinates. Therefore, every time a subordinate presented an idea in which the leader felt threatened, he would produce excuses or reasons why that particular member should not continue on with the idea. This happened repeatedly, and the impact was that the organization was doomed to mediocrity. Employees became less engaged and stopped producing ideas, and productivity decreased. Eventually, the leader's department became dispensable and was cut when the company reorganized.

At the high end of the spectrum, overconfident leaders are viewed as arrogant or hubristic.

Leaders with hubris:

  • Think so highly of themselves that they become narrow-minded. They do not look at the big picture, but become consumed with their own biases, and do not make the right decisions for the organization.
  • Create a "yes-man" culture. People around this type of leader only say what they think the leader wants to hear, not what needs to be said.
  • Inhibit creativity and initiative because of the lack of openness to new ideas that did not originate with him or her.
  • Can not perform at their best since they think they do not need to improve. The reality is that no matter where you are in your career, in order to stay the best, you have to constantly work on improving your technical and leadership skills.

Consider one over-confident vice president of a Fortune 500 company who decided he could sell a new product to a previous customer by overselling. He believed that his employees would just have to keep up with him. After all, he became a vice president by overselling himself for years. He did not consult with any experts on this decision and never understood the dimensions of a reasonable time frame or the feasibility to create the product he was promising the client. He did win the contract, but failed miserably at delivery of the product and lost a customer that had done business with the organization for years. Additionally, top talent in the company suffered from burnout, working too many hours to create the impossible. Leaders must be careful not to stretch their employees to such an extreme that they have been set up to fail.

Regardless of which end of the spectrum you fall as a leader, you are a liability to your organization. Through the behaviors mentioned above, leaders at either end of the spectrum contribute to decreased productivity and employee engagement. After time, this results in failed projects, loss of customers and, most importantly, loss of top talent in the organization. Claiming that these types of leaders cost their organizations millions of dollars is no exaggeration. So, here are some tips that can help you avoid being a liability to your company.

  • Accept that you are not perfect. Surround yourself with people who compliment you, individuals whose strengths are in the areas you are weak on.
  • Focus on your strengths! Maximize them while working on the areas you need to improve for the job you are in and the one you aspire to be. Every job needs different skills.
  • Surround yourself with people who are not afraid to give you honest feedback.
  • Be an open-minded leader. Listen to what those around you have to say, even when their ideas are better than yours.
  • Take calculated risks.
  • Understand that failure is part of success. If you fail, pick yourself up, dust yourself off, learn from it and move on.
  • Continue to grease your wheels, otherwise you will get rusty. Personal and professional development should never stop!


Northouse, PG (2010). Leadership Theory and Practice. California: Sage Publications.


Source by Sandra Tibbs

5 Principles For Debt Management


Debt Management – 5 Principles to help you get your debt under control!


It has been increasingly difficult to get credit these day, whether you're looking for a car loan, credit card, or even a home loan. So managing your debt, and having a good credit score is very important. No longer are lenders handing out zero down and no interest loans. Credit card offers these days are reserved for those with good to excellent credit.

BusinessWeek says that total household debt in the US was more than 100% of our disposable annual income last year. The average person has more than $ 8000 in credit card debt.

The bottom line is that our personal debt is growing at an alarming rate. You can now charge your fast food meals at many restaurants, paying interest for years on something you consumed in one sitting. Many people have taken steps to address their debt problems, including consolidating debt to lower interest rate cards, or to home equity loans, or at worst case the dreaded "B" word, Bankruptcy.

5 Principles of Debt Management

1. Create an accurate assessment of your debt situation.
Make a list, chart or whatever you're most comfortable with, of all your debts. Be sure and include the amounts, interest rates, and expiration dates (especially on any no-interest for ## days type loans). Be sure and note any old accounts that you've got "laying around", such as that department store credit account that you opened to get the 15% discount.

You can now get a free credit report online. You should make sure that you've got a credit report and FICO score from each of the 3 national credit bureaus: Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. The FTC advises monitoring your CREDIT REPORT activity ON ALL 3 BUREAUS. Under a new Federal law, you have the right to receive a free copy of your credit report once every 12 months from each of the three nationwide consumer reporting companies. allows you to request a free credit file disclosure (ie. Credit Report) once every 12 months from each of the nationwide consumer credit reporting companies. This free credit report will not include your credit score, but it does give you a consolidated list of your debts, a record of requests for your credit history, and a summary of your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

Once you've gotten your free credit report, you also need to get your Credit Score. You can get your Credit Score, along with daily 3 bureau credit monitoring and other great services from

2. Make a budget and stick to it !
Making a budget helps keep from increasing your debt, while you're trying to pay it down. Be specific and detailed in your budgeting. Except for emergencies, you should only be spending what is accounted for in your budget. Some people have found it helpful to keep a 30 day log of their spending. Carry a little notebook, or some index cards with you, and write down everything you spend each day. You'll probably be amazed at how much money you spend on things you want, and do not really need. The smallest things, such as that $ 3 cup of coffee every day, can slowly eat away at your finances. This will help keep you from getting further in debt. Your budget should define how much money you'll send to each of your creditors monthly and how much you need for bills, and how much is left for discretionary spending. Try limiting your discretionary spending to things you can buy with "pocket cash". This may be hardest thing you've ever done, but you will not get further in debt if you only spend what you have.

3. Pay off the debts one by one .
Maintain minimum payments to the rest of the debts, but pick the debt with the highest interest rate, and send extra payments to pay it off. There is a proven psychological benefit to being able to take a debt off of your list.

4. Consider debt consolidation or debt restructuring and possibly refinancing your home mortgage.
Lower your credit card debt by 70% by consolidating. With interest rates down, it also may be time to refinance your home mortgage loan and cut your monthly payment. You can get free mortgage loan quotes at LowCostLending. When you refinance, make sure closing costs and other fees do not outweigh the savings in your monthly payment. Another option is to get a Home Equity Loan. Home equity loans are good because they allow you to deduct the interest on your income taxes. Remember though, new credit is not a license to incur new or more debts. Once you've transferred a balance by consolidating, or refinancing, do not add more charges to the old account. If you've got a lot of open accounts, you may want to close some of them, but you should not necessarily always cancel the old account. Having a good payment history with a few existing accounts can be better for your credit record than many canceled and new accounts.

5. If necessary, get help.
You may choose a credit counseling service, or debt counseling and debt help service to help with each step of your debt solution. Credit counselors can add accountability to your debt solution, and also serve as a source of encouragement. They are used to dealing with people with bad credit or poor credit, and can help you create a custom debt solution. They can suggest money lenders that might be more willing to make a loan to someone with a lower credit rating. Once you start reducing your debts without incurring new ones, you'll start to see your credit score rise.

By following these simple principles, you should be able to get your debt under control, reduce it, and eventfully eliminate it.


Source by Tom Sexton

Why Change Is not Always a Good Thing


We ran out of toothpaste last week, a rare occurrence because I'm usually quite organised and always have "spares" of the stuff we use every day – you know, shower gel, washing up liquid, that sort of thing. Fortunately, I had a travel-sized tube in my wash bag. We had to resort to using that.

So when I trucked off on the weekly shop, I bought some more. I just got our usual brand. Well, I thought I had.

"Why did you buy different Toothpaste?" was the howl I was greeted with the following morning. Actually, I did not, I said, I think if you look closely you'll see it's the usual brand …

And it was and, then again, it was not. You see, the manufacturers, in their wisdom, had brought out a new version of our old favourite. A new and improved version apparently. According to whom, I'd like to know? Hmmm … Who decided the old formula was not good enough anymore and decided to mess with it and turn it into something totally unrecognisable from the original version? No one in our house, that's for sure. Bet it was some executive in some big glass corner office who wanted to shake things up a bit.

Why is it some people feel the need to change for change's sake? Have they not heard of "if it is not broke, do not fix it?" But then I suppose there's the flip side of the coin that asks why, when things are clearly not right, does no one make the effort to change them for the better?

Or is it we're just not satisfied either way? Do we just want everything to stay the same? Are we all fundamentally resistant to change?

There's comfort in familiarity you see. We like things we understand, that we can rely on. We do not really like it when things change. It unsettles us and makes us feel vulnerable and uncertain. So we often just trundle along in the same old way doing the same old things and that seems to work for certain people.

And there's always the argument that if it is not broken, then there's no need to fix it. Things that work perfectly well as they are have no need for change. I understand the desire to have a new and updated "3.0" version of something that's been around for a while, but I really do not see why we constantly feel the need to "improve" things that are pretty much perfect as they are. I suppose the perfect example of this is the logo for a famous cola company; their trademark script have not changed since 1887.

The only problem arises when that familiarity turns into contempt; when we start to take too much for granted and then suddenly, we're surrounded by disharmony and discontent and that's not a good outcome for anyone.

I'm on the fence on this one. I like change, but only if I feel like I've got a certain amount of control. What I find more difficult is when people who think they know better than me decide to make changes on my behalf and I have no choice but to go along with them. It's the feeling of not knowing that I do not like. But then I'm a bit of a control freak so I guess that's never going to change.

What I do know, however, is that I'd really like to chat to the person who decided to change our toothpaste. Bet he does not like the new flavour any more than we do.


Source by Lisa Chilvers

Network Design Process – Effective Network Planning and Design



The network planning and design methodology describes a process with 9 specific steps and a sequence for those activities. As mentioned it is an engineering life cycle that supports technical initiatives such as Windows migration, IP telephony and wireless design to name a few examples. The methodology begins with examining company business requirements. It is absolutely essential that you understand the company business model, business drivers and how they are growing from a business perspective. That will build the foundation for a design proposal that serves the business, technical and operational requirements of the company.


Any design project starts with an understanding of what the company does and what they need to accomplish from a business perspective. This begins with an understanding of their business model, which really describes how their company works from an operational and business perspective to generate revenues and reduce costs. Many vendors today have conducted their own return on investment (ROI) studies for new implementations such as Unified Communications and Telephony. It is an effective sales tool that illustrates the cost benefits compared with investment over a specified period of time.

This is a list of some typical business drivers:

• Reduce Operating Costs

• Generate Revenue

• Client Satisfaction

• Employee Productivity

This is a list of some typical project business requirements:

• Budget Constraints

• Office Consolidations

• Company Mergers and Acquisitions

• Business Partner Connectivity

• Telecommuter Remote Access

• Implement New Offices and Employees

• New Data Center Applications

• Reduce Network Outage Costs

• Cost Effective Network Management

• Vendor Contracts


Now that you understand the basic business requirements of the company, you can determine the standard and specific design requirements. The design requirements process is focused on defining requirements from a technical perspective. Those requirements along with the business requirements will build the framework that is used to define infrastructure, security and management. Design requirements are defined as standard and miscellaneous. The standard design requirements are generic and represent those considered with many design projects. Miscellaneous requirements are those that are not defined with any of the standard requirements.

• Standard Design Requirements

• Performance

• Availability

• Scalability

• Standards Compatibility

• Rapid Deployment


A network assessment is conducted after we have finished the business and design requirements of the company. A network assessment provides a quick snapshot of the current network with an examination of the infrastructure, performance, availability, management and security. That information is utilized for making effective strategy recommendations and design proposals to the client concerning specific information systems modifications. The network assessment model has 3 sequential activities, which are assessment, analysis and recommendations. The current network is examined using five primary surveys: infrastructure, performance, availability, management and security. When the surveys are completed, the information collected is then reviewed for trends, problems and issues that are negatively affecting the network.


After doing an network assessment we are ready to start selecting specific infrastructure components for the network design. This phase starts building the infrastructure with a specific sequence that promotes effective equipment selection and design. It is important that you consider business requirements, design requirements and the network assessment when building your infrastructure.

The following numbered list describes the specific infrastructure components and their particular sequence.

1. Enterprise WAN Topology

2. Campus Topology

3. Traffic Model

4. Equipment Selection

5. Circuits

6. Routing Protocol Design

7. Addressing

8. Naming Conventions

9. iOS Services

10. Domain Name Services

11. DHCP Services


We must now define a security strategy for securing the infrastructure. The need for enterprise network security should not be ignored with the proliferation of the Internet. Companies are continuing to leverage the public infrastructure for connecting national and international offices, business partners and new company acquisitions. The security requirements and network assessment recommendations should drive the selection of security equipment, protocols and processes. It identifies what assets must be protected, what users are allowed access and how those assets will be secured.


This section will define a network management strategy for managing all equipment defined from infrastructure and security. It is necessary to define how the equipment is going to be monitored and determine if the current management strategy is adequate or if new applications, equipment, protocols and processes must be identified. Management components are then integrated with infrastructure and security to finish building the proposed design. These primary elements comprise any well-defined management strategy and should be considered when developing your strategy.

• 7 Management Groups

• SNMP Applications

• Monitored Devices and Events


All infrastructure, security and management components must now be tested with a proof of concept plan. It is important to test the current design, configuration and iOS versions in a non-production environment or on the production network with limited disruption. Implementation of newer network modules at a router, for instance, could require that you change the current iOS version that is implemented. Making those changes could affect WAN or campus modules already installed at production routers. That is the real value of doing a proof of concept and certifying that the new equipment and iOS versions integrate with each device as well as the network. The following list describes the advantages of doing a proof of concept with your network design. The proof of concept test results should be examined and used to modify current infrastructure, security and management specifications before generating a design proposal. The proof of concept model suggested here involves prototype design, equipment provisioning, defining tests, building equipment scripts and examining test results.

1. Prototype Design

2. Provision Equipment

3. Define Tests

4. Build Equipment Scripts

5. Review Test Results


With the proof of concept finished, you are now ready to build a design proposal for the design review meeting. Your intended audience could be the Director, CIO, CTO, Senior Network Engineer, Consultant or anyone that is approving a budget for the project. It is important to present your ideas with clarity and professionalism. If a presentation is required, power point slides work well and could be used to support concepts from the design proposal document. The focus is on what comprises a standard design proposal and the sequence for presenting that information.

The working design proposal is presented to the client after addressing any concerns from proof of concept assurance testing. The design review is an opportunity for you to present your design proposal to the client and discuss any issues. It is an opportunity for the client to identify concerns they have and for the design engineer to clarify issues. The focus is to agree on any modifications, if required, and make changes to the infrastructure, security and management before implementation starts. Business and design requirements can change from when the project started which sometimes will necessitate changes to infrastructure, security and management specifications. Any changes should then go through proof of concept testing again before final changes to the design proposal.


The final step will have us defining an implementation process for the specified design. This describes a suggested implementation methodology of the proposed design, which should have minimal disruption to the production network. As well it should be efficient and as cost effective as possible. As with previous methodologies there is a sequence that should be utilized as well. Once the implementation is finished, there is monitoring of the network for any problems. Design and configuration modifications are then made to address any problems or concerns.

Copyright 2006 Shaun Hummel All Rights Reserved


Source by Shaun Hummel